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Xi'an History

Overview
Xi’an, the capital of Shaanxi Province, China. It is a sub-provincial city located in the center of the Guanzhong Plain in Northwest China. Xi'an is the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties in Chinese history, including Western Zhou, Qin, Western Han, Sui, and Tang. Meanwhile, Xi'an is the starting point of the Silk Road and home to the Terracotta Army of Emperor Qin Shi Huang.

Since the 1990s, the city of Xi'an has re-emerged as an important cultural, industrial and educational centre of the central-northwest region, with facilities for research and development, national security and China's space exploration program. Xi'an has a great number of precious relics and historical sites, some dating back to its times as capital. More than 4,000 historical sites and tombs have been excavated, now it become one of the top ten China tourism cities. 

Zhou Dynasty
In the 11th century BC with the founding of the Zhou dynasty, Xi'an became a cultural and political centre of China. The capital of Zhou was established in the twin settlements of Fengjing (丰京) and Haojing, together known as Fenghao, located southwest of contemporary Xi'an. The settlement was also known as Zhōngzhōu to indicate its role as the capital of the vassal states.

Qin Dynasty
In 770 BC, China was unified under the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) for the first time, with the capital located at Xianyang, just northwest of modern Xi'an. The first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang ordered the construction of the Terracotta Army and his mausoleum just to the east of Xi'an almost immediately after his ascension to the throne. 

Han Dynasty
In 202 BC, the founding emperor Liu Bang of the Han dynasty established his capital in Chang'an County; Xi'an was the starting point of the world's longest overland ancient trading route, the Silk Road. It was a highly significant trade route linking ancient China with Central Asia and European countries.

From Sui Dynasty to Tang Dynasty
Following several hundred years of unrest, after the Hans, wars broke the country apart until the Sui Dynasty (581-618) was established in 582. The emperor of Sui ordered a new capital to be built southeast of the Han capital, called Daxing (great prosperity). At the time, it was the largest city in the world. The city was renamed Chang'an (Perpetual Peace or Eternal Peace) by the Tang Dynasty. The Silk Road trade flourished and Chang'an became a city of world-wide importance. Academics, students, traders and merchants from around the world visited Chang'an making it a cosmopolitan metropolis of its time.

Ming Dynasty to Modern times
Unfortunately, Chang'an was devastated at the end of the Tang dynasty in 904. Residents were forced to move to the new capital city in Luoyang. Only a small area in the city continued to be occupied thereafter. During the Ming dynasty, a new wall was constructed in 1370 and remains intact to this day. 

Today
Xi'an has re-emerged as an important cultural, industrial and educational centre of the central-northwest region, with facilities for research and development, national security and China's space exploration program. Xi'an currently holds sub-provincial status, administering 9 districts and 4 counties. It is the most populous city in Northwest China, as well as one of the three most populous cities in Western China. According to a July 2012 report by the Economist Intelligence Unit, it was recently named as one of the 13 emerging megacities, or megalopolises, in China. The report pinpoints and highlights the demographic and income trends that are shaping these cities' development.

Xi'an made headlines for being one of the many cities where the 2012 China anti-Japanese demonstrations was happening in

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